勝手に僻地散歩



丁酉

謹賀新年。

本年の干支は、丁酉(ひのと・とり)である。

丁の最も古い字形は、釘の頭の形で、前年の丙を承けて、夏時草木の繁茂を示すものと解されている。
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# by iyasaca | 2017-01-01 00:00 | 新年のご挨拶 | Comments(0)

丙申

謹賀新年。

本年の干支は、丙申(へい・しん、ひのえ・さる)である。

丙は五行では火の性格、方角では南、季節は夏にあたる。

丙を分解すれば「一」、「冂」、「入」となり、「一」は陽気が一段と伸びる様子、「冂(けい)」は左右に張り広げられた囲いを表し、陽気や活動力がすすんで発展することを意味する。「入」は内、つまり陽気が囲いの中に入るという意味となる。

また紀元100年、後漢の時代を生きた儒学者、許慎の手による部首別漢字辞典である「説文解字(せつもんかいじ)」によれば
「丙は南方に位し、万物成りて炳然たり。陰気初めて起こり陽気まさに欠けんとす」
とある。

ここにある火偏に丙、炳(あきらか)という字には、「陽気が一段と発展し、強い」という意味がある。つまり丙(ひのえ)は、陽気や活動力が一段と伸びるが、同時に陽気が囲いの中に入っていく、つまり陰りが見え始めることを表しているのである。

いっぽう申(さる)は、十二支の第九位、方角では西南西、時刻では午後四時にあたる。肋骨にまっすぐ背骨が走る様子の象形であり、「伸」という字にある通り、伸びるという意味がある。また「電」という字に見られる通り、転じて稲妻の光が走る様子を表している。

つまり丙申(ひのえ・さる)とは、新旧、善悪の勢力が一昨年、昨年に増し、いっそう強くなるが、あらゆる盛んなものの内には必ず衰えの兆しを含むという理にある通り、慎みを知り、有頂天となることを諫めるべき年なのである。

前回の丙申は、1956年。国内的には、戦争直後の混乱と朝鮮戦争を主因とする旺盛な消費・投資需要が一段落し、7月に発表された経済企画庁の年次経済報告の結語にあった「もはや『戦後』ではない 」との文言が流行語となった。また10月には鳩山一郎首相がソ連を訪問、日ソ共同宣言を締結し、国交が回復し、年末にはソ連の拒否権発動の立場からの方針転換に伴い、日本が国際連合加盟を果たした年である。

また国際的には年初にフルシチョフ第一書記によるスターリンの個人崇拝、独裁政治の批判と粛清の事実が明らかとなり(いわゆるスターリン批判)、米ソの雪解けムードが醸成されつつあったが、10月のハンガリー動乱におけるソ連軍による激しい民衆運動の弾圧など、後の激しい冷戦の萌芽も見えつつある時期であった。

さて翻って昨今の日本と日本を取り巻く状況はどうであろうか。未だデフレ脱却は成し遂げられないが、株価は4年連続で上昇し、賃金も上昇の兆しが見え始めてきた。稚拙な担当大臣の答弁や、自ら選び国会に招請した専門家に片っ端から違憲宣告されるという失態にもかかわらず、成立させた安全保障関連法案や未だ全貌が明らかにならないものの大筋合意したと伝えられているTPP、そして年の瀬も押し迫った段になって急転直下、韓国との合意にもちこんだ慰安婦問題の妥結などはいずれも変転する外部環境、とりわけ中国に対する強い警戒感への対応と見て取れる。

旧年中の動きを見るに安倍晋三総理大臣と官邸チームは、総じて効果的に施策を打ち出していると言えよう。次に見据えるのはロシアと北方領土の問題解決の道筋をつけることと橋下徹率いる大阪維新との共闘による憲法改正だろう。干支が指し示す通り、ますます陽気盛んに実績を積み重ねる安倍政権に終末の空気が流れ始める年となるのか。まだまだ陽気が前面に押し出される一年となるのか。慎みを知り、有頂天となるを自ら戒めることができるのかどうかにかかっている。

本年も皆様にとってよりよい一年となりますよう。
[PR]
# by iyasaca | 2016-01-01 00:00 | 新年のご挨拶 | Comments(0)

カブールにいってみた 追記

f0008679_17115119.jpg
<写真:伝Mohammed Omar>
つい先頃、タリバン最高指導者であるオマル師が2013年に死亡していたとの報が流れ、しばらくしてタリバンも死亡の事実を認めるという動きがあった。2008年にカブールを訪れた際に書いたエントリーにて、オマル師について当時分かっていることをまとめていたことを思い出し、ここに改めて彼の動静について追記する形で記述する。

f0008679_2231566.jpg
<写真:投宿したインターコンチネンタルホテル、何度も襲撃されてます。>

2001年10月に開始したアフガニスタン攻撃以降、タリバンの最高指導者オマル師の足取りはほとんど分かっていない。軍事作戦開始直後の2001年10月にはカンダハールの自宅が攻撃された段階では、すでに自宅を離れ、アフガニスタン・パキスタン国境に向かっていたようである。(その後クエッタに避難したとの説もあり)。

2004年4月にパキスタン人ジャーナリストのモハマド・シェーザド(Mohammad Shehzad)が電話インタビュー(やり取りについては本エントリー末尾参照)を行ったとされているが、それ以外に本人の肉声(らしきものを含めて)が伝わることはなかった。ほかにも時折、パキスタンの情報機関(ISI)や、アフガニスタン政府、タリバン幹部を通じて所在や生存(死亡)情報が流れることはあったが、一つとして確認がとれた情報はない。

f0008679_2232417.jpg
<写真:地雷だらけの丘の上からのカブール市遠景>

噂と同程度の情報であることを前提の上で、オマル師の動静として報道された主なものについて時系列に並べてみると以下のような形になる。

2004年3月「ジャバー・アジズという名前の医師によると、オマル師は3月上旬にアフガニスタン南部ザブル州にて米軍の空爆に遭い脚部と体の左側を負傷、全治2ヶ月」 
 (3月20日付ウルドウ語日刊紙Auzaf)
2007年1月 「オマル師はISIの保護下にあり、クエッタにいる」
 (ムハマド・ハニーフ(Muhammad Hanif)タリバン報道官)
2009年11月「オマル師は10月にISIの手引きでカラチに移動」
 (ワシントン・ポスト)
2011年1月「オマル師は1月7日に心臓発作を発症し、カラチのアガ・カーン病院で手術・治療が行われた」
 (Eclipse Group(民間のインテリジェンス機関、当時はCIAと契約関係にあった。パネッタCIA長官が訪米中のパキスタン・ザルダリ大統領に問いただすも否定、腎臓疾患または髄膜炎との説もあり)
2015年4月 タリバン運営のサイト上で、オマル師の評伝発表

そのような中、突如として2015年7月29日にアフガニスタン大統領府及び国家保安局が、オマル師は2013年4月にパキスタン・カラチの病院で死亡していたと発表した。直後に否定をするタリバン幹部もいたが、翌30日になって、タリバンは公式サイトを通じ、「オマル師は病気のため亡くなった」とタリバン指導評議会とオマル師の家族と連名で発表した。死因は肺結核(アフガニスタン元閣僚の言による)であったとも伝えられているが、真偽は不明であり、「不審な状況(=暗殺?、アフガニスタン国家治安局ハシブ・シュデキ報道官)」との発言も報道されている。また亡くなった場所についてもアフガン領内であるともカラチの病院であるとも言われている。2015年8月7日にパキスタンのアシフ国防相は、同国議会で「パキスタンでは死亡も埋葬もない」と否定している。死亡日については、その後4月23日であったと公式ツイッター上で発表している。


<参考情報>
1)オマル師インタビュー
「The Rediff Interview/Mullah Omar」, (2004年4月12日) , [http://www.rediff.com/news/2004/apr/12inter.htm] (最終検索日2015年8月10日)
Where are you? How is your health? What are you doing for food?
I cannot disclose my location due to security reasons. I change it very frequently. But I can tell you. I am in Afghanistan. I am perfectly fine. Food should not be an issue for a true Muslim. God feeds me like he feeds other Muslims.
What is your strength? Who provides you arms and ammunition?
We are so many in numbers that our strength cannot be counted. Before vacating the country, we had dumped the arms and ammunition in huge quantities at various secret locations. We have enough to fight for decades. Moreover, we snatch arms and ammunition from the coalition forces just like we seized it from the Soviet forces.
What is your strategy?
We carry out guerilla activities. We recently carried out some suicide attacks that have been very fruitful by the grace of God. We have set up a special suicide squad that consists of 2,000 Taliban. This squad will make life hell for the US and its allies and force them out of Afghanistan. Insha Allah!
How did you manage to escape the US troops in Afghanistan? Are stories of your under-the-moonlight motorcycle getaway fact or myth?
This does not matter how I managed to escape. What really matters is God's mercy, kindness and greatness. He has been protecting Osama bin Laden and myself when the US warplanes were intensively bombarding the Tora Bora caves. It was almost impossible to escape this attack. But by the grace of God, we did not receive a single scratch.
Did you flee to Pakistan?
I am not sure. Perhaps! The border between the two countries is so contiguous that it is extremely difficult to judge whether one is physically in Pakistan or Afghanistan. We don't stay at one place and keep moving.
When was the last time you met or heard from Osama? Is he alive?
I met him months ago and we are in contact with each other. He is very much alive and kicking.
Where is he?
You think I will tell you! All I can says is, he is not in your (Pakistan) tribal areas!
You said you are in contact with Osama. What is your mode of communication?
I cannot go into details. There could be several ways. We have our own traditional system of communication.
Do you regret lending support to Osama and hosting him in your country?
Not at all. Osama is the greatest mujahid of the present times. He is not a terrorist as propagated by the US. He fought for Afghanistan. He saved Afghans. How could we regret hosting him? I asked the world to provide evidence again him. He was innocent. Therefore, nobody -- even Saudi Arabia -- could prove anything against him.

We had tremendous pressure to expel him -- even from our friends like Saudi Arabia and Pakistan. Your [former Pakistan] interior minister Moinuddin Haider and even General Pervez Musharraf met me personally to seek Osama's extradition. But I refused. We paid a very heavy price for this decision. But we proved that the Taliban were independent people. They were nobody's product as portrayed by the media.
The Taliban could have escaped the US wrath had they expelled Osama
We don't care for the US wrath! We are only afraid of God's wrath. The US was hell-bent to topple our legitimate government. It would have still done so even had Osama been expelled.
Don't you think you unnecessarily antagonised the international community? After all, what was the rationale behind destroying the Bamiyan Buddha?
I did not want to destroy the Bamiyan Buddha. In fact, some foreigners came to me and said they would like to conduct the repair work of the Bamiyan Buddha that had been slightly damaged due to rains. This shocked me. I thought, these callous people have no regard for thousands of living human beings --the Afghans who are dying of hunger, but they are so concerned about non-living objects like the Buddha. This was extremely deplorable. That is why I ordered its destruction. Had they come for humanitarian work, I would have never ordered the Buddha's destruction.
What is your opinion about General Musharraf?
General Musharraf was used by the US to topple our legitimate government. Thus he has committed a major sin. We will not forgive him! He is not loyal to Pakistan. He has betrayed the people of Pakistan as well as the Muslim nationhood. Like Bush, he too is a threat to the Muslim unity. I urge the people of Pakistan to wage jihad against Musharraf, remove him from power and punish him severely.
Afghans have chosen a constitution. They will be electing their president soon. Don't you think the country is moving toward stability?
All the delegates of the Loya Jirga were criminals as rightly pointed out by a young lady [Malalai Joya]. She showed the courage of telling the delegates that they were murderers of innocent people of Afghanistan and they should be dragged to the national and international courts of justice. The Loya Jirga is a US ploy to derive legitimacy for the Karzai government. We denounce it.

Our position is clear: we will kill all those who will register themselves as voters or cast votes in the forthcoming election. We will kill all those who support the US and its allies in any manner. America is the greatest evil on earth. It is the enemy of Islam. Whoever is the US friend is the enemy of Islam. Killing the enemies of Islam is jihad. We have already consigned to hell more than 1,000 infidels that include the Americans, their allies and their Afghan flunkies.
Have you issued a religious ruling to kill women that are working with aid agencies in Afghanistan?
Yes. As I said, whoever sides with the US or its allies deserves death. I am giving such women the last warning. If they do not dissociate themselves from these agencies within 30 days and confine themselves to the boundary wall of their houses, death will be their destiny. These agencies are preaching Christianity under the cover of development. Most of the Afghans have become apostate. They also deserve death. We will kill them.
What do you think of Afghan President Hamid Karzai?
He is a puppet of America, just like Abdul Haq, Haji Abdul Qadeer and Ahmad Shah Masoud. We condemned these three traitors to death. Insha Allah very soon, Karzai will also meet their fate. We want to show the world how the Taliban treats traitors!
Your former foreign minister Mullah Wakil Ahmed Muttawakil has turned renegade after striking a deal with the US. Another colleague Mullah Siddiqullah has deserted you. Does not it indicate 'demoralisation' among the Taliban?
The Taliban are not demoralised. Despair is a sin. The Taliban are united. We are giving the US and the coalition forces a tough time. We are hunting them down like pigs. We are very happy to learn that the US is dispatching an additional contingent of more than 2,000 soldiers. This will be a huge herd of pigs for us to hunt down. We are waiting anxiously for their arrival!

Mullah Muttawakil has not tuned renegade. He is in US custody, enduring the worst physical and mental torture. The US has failed to extract anything from him. Moreover, the Taliban is the name of a movement based on ideology. Such movements do not depend on individuals, but conviction, belief and God's support. All these elements are very much there.
A section of Afghan society says 'Mullah Omar' is a brand name and not a real person.
You better ask General Moinuddin Haider [former interior minister of Pakistan] or General Musharraf. They have met me. They will tell you whether 'Mullah Omar' is a myth or a reality. However as said earlier, our movement does not depend on individual. If I die today, there will be many 'Mullah Omars' to replace me. Similarly, if Osama dies today, there will be many 'Osamas' to replace him.
f0008679_2232177.jpg
<写真:土壁でできた住居跡>

2) オマル師―自身の言葉で 
「Mullah Omar - in his own words」(2001年9月26日)[http://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/sep/26/afghanistan.features11] (最終検索日2015年8月10日)

こちらはさらに前にボイス・オブ・アメリカによって行われた12分の電話インタビュー。

This12-minute interview with Mullah Omar Mohammad, the Taliban leader, was conducted in Pashtu for the publicly-funded radio channel Voice of America. The broadcast was pulled last Friday, following objections from the US deputy secretary of state and senior officials of the National Security Council.
Voice of America interviewer: Why don't you expel Osama bin Laden?
Omar: This is not an issue of Osama bin Laden. It is an issue of Islam. Islam's prestige is at stake. So is Afghanistan's tradition.
VOA: Do you know that the US has announced a war on terrorism?
Omar: I am considering two promises. One is the promise of God, the other is that of Bush. The promise of God is that my land is vast. If you start a journey on God's path, you can reside anywhere on this earth and will be protected... The promise of Bush is that there is no place on earth where you can hide that I cannot find you. We will see which one of these two promises is fulfilled.
VOA: But aren't you afraid for the people, yourself, the Taliban, your country?
Omar: Almighty God... is helping the believers and the Muslims. God says he will never be satisfied with the infidels. In terms of worldly affairs, America is very strong. Even if it were twice as strong or twice that, it could not be strong enough to defeat us. We are confident that no one can harm us if God is with us.
VOA: You are telling me you are not concerned, but Afghans all over the world are concerned.
Omar: We are also concerned. Great issues lie ahead. But we depend on God's mercy. Consider our point of view: if we give Osama away today, Muslims who are now pleading to give him up would then be reviling us for giving him up... Everyone is afraid of America and wants to please it. But Americans will not be able to prevent such acts like the one that has just occurred because America has taken Islam hostage. If you look at Islamic countries, the people are in despair. They are complaining that Islam is gone. But people remain firm in their Islamic beliefs. In their pain and frustration, some of them commit suicide acts. They feel they have nothing to lose.
VOA: What do you mean by saying America has taken the Islamic world hostage?
Omar: America controls the governments of the Islamic countries. The people ask to follow Islam, but the governments do not listen because they are in the grip of the United States. If someone follows the path of Islam, the government arrests him, tortures him or kills him. This is the doing of America. If it stops supporting those governments and lets the people deal with them, then such things won't happen. America has created the evil that is attacking it. The evil will not disappear even if I die and Osama dies and others die. The US should step back and review its policy. It should stop trying to impose its empire on the rest of the world, especially on Islamic countries.
VOA: So you won't give Osama bin Laden up?
Omar: No. We cannot do that. If we did, it means we are not Muslims... that Islam is finished. If we were afraid of attack, we could have surrendered him the last time we were threatened and attacked. So America can hit us again, and this time we don't even have a friend.
VOA: If you fight America with all your might - can the Taliban do that? Won't America beat you and won't your people suffer even more?
Omar: I'm very confident that it won't turn out this way. Please note this: there is nothing more we can do except depend on almighty God. If a person does, then he is assured that the Almighty will help him, have mercy on him and he will succeed.
[PR]
# by iyasaca | 2015-08-10 17:19 | アフガニスタン・イスラム共和国 | Comments(0)


知ることで景色が変わる。誰にも頼まれてないですが、あちこちにいってきます。
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